Ronalds Vilciņš


Fluid Typography

Typography is not just about choosing attractive fonts, it’s about ensuring that text is readable and appealing across a myriad of devices. This brings us to the concept of fluid typography, a responsive design approach that adapts seamlessly to the user’s screen size, enhancing readability and user experience. Fluid typography goes beyond the traditional fixed and responsive typographic scales. It involves using scalable units and calculations that allow text to grow or shrink in relation to the screen size. This adaptability ensures that your website is not only aesthetically pleasing but also functionally robust, regardless of the device it’s viewed on.

The Technicalities of Fluid Typography

The cornerstone of fluid typography lies in its use of relative CSS units like vw (viewport width), vh (viewport height), em, and rem. These units allow font sizes to be flexible and responsive, as opposed to the rigidness of pixels. For example, setting a font size in viewport units means it will always be a certain percentage of the viewport width, making your typography inherently responsive.

Implementing Fluid Typography

Implementing fluid typography involves several steps. Let’s break it down with examples:

  1. Setting Base Font Size: Start by defining a base font size in your CSS. Instead of using pixels, use viewport units. For example:

    html {
        font-size: 2vw;

    This sets the base font size to 2% of the viewport width, making it change dynamically with the screen size.

  2. Creating Scalable Text: Use the em unit for other typographic elements to scale in relation to the base font size. For instance:

    h1 {
        font-size: 2.5em; /* 2.5 times the base font size */
  3. Using Media Queries for More Control: While viewport units offer great fluidity, they can make text too large on big screens or too small on mobile devices. To tackle this, use media queries:

    @media (min-width: 600px) {
        html {
            font-size: 18px; /* Fixes base size for larger screens */
    @media (max-width: 599px) {
        html {
            font-size: 16px; /* Fixes base size for smaller screens */

    These media queries ensure that while the text remains fluid, it doesn’t become uncomfortably large or small at certain breakpoints.

  4. Testing and Tweaking: It’s crucial to test your typography on various devices to ensure optimal readability. Adjust your settings as needed to find the perfect balance.

  5. Advanced Techniques: For more advanced scenarios, consider using CSS functions like calc() and CSS preprocessors like SASS, which allow more complex calculations and control over your typography scale.

There are several tools and libraries available to simplify the implementation of fluid typography. CSS frameworks like Bootstrap or Tailwind CSS offer built-in support for responsive typography. Additionally, online calculators and SASS mixins can be invaluable for setting up your typographic scales.